Detecting trending topics is perfect to summarize information getting from social media. To extract what topic is becoming hot on online media is one of the challenges. As we considering social media so social services are opportunity for spamming which greatly affect on value of real time search. Therefore the next task is to control spamming from social networking sites. For completing these challenges different concepts of data mining will be used. For now whatever work has been done is narrated below like spam control using natural language processing for preprocessing and clustering. One account has been created for making it real.
Illiteracy is a serious problem for many countries, especially for developing countries like Indonesia. This condition is addressed by continuing illiteracy completion programs which one of them is a functional literacy program.
The efforts of illiteracy completion do not stop at the program implementation. This effort is also implemented in the form of accelerating literacy through applying various strategies and methods of learning; even to create or bring innovation in the form of new learning strategies or methods. One of the innovative methods of functional literacy learning is the iqro 'method.
Iqro' method is a method used by literacy tutor in Merpati study group in Kaliwates sub-district of Jember Regency. Based on the preliminary study result, the application of this method succeeded to make the people learn to master the ability of reading, writing and counting in 16 meetings / 32 hours face to face learning with the details of the implementation that was 2 hours (120 minutes) each meeting, 2 times a week and held in 2 months.
Although there has been no patenting of this method, 32 hours of face-to-face learning / 16 meetings spent in the learning process; so that, people learn to master reading, writing and calculation skills, can make this method as one of methods that can be used for acceleration of illiteracy completion. Based on the explanation above, there were two reasons behind this research. First, this method is an effective method implemented to accelerate literacy, and the second is no research has examined the application of the iqro 'method of literacy learning.
This research was conducted in Merpati study group in Dusun Wonosari Mangli village Kaliwates Sub-district of Jember Regency. This case study research used qualitative approach. The case study was chosen because the researcher wanted to reveal the case (the application of the iqro method) that occurred at the research location.
The data collected were data related to the application of iqro method in the research location, and were collected from tutors, learning citizens, and supporting documents as their data sources, as well as were collected by using observation, interview and documentation study methods.
The Data were analyzed by using hermeneutics analysis technique. According to Taylor in Sarosa (2012), hermeneutics analysis is an effort to make the research object become plausible and clear. The process of analysis was done by filtering the qualitative data obtained then considering to formulate into the findings.
According to Mapiare (2013), the steps consist of three: the part interpretation, the overall interpretation, and meaning. The part interpretation is done by interpreting the items and data sets obtained. The overall interpretation is done by composing and reframing the obtained data into intact personal meanings as a whole. Meaning is done by continuously checking and observing the meaning of data obtained from informants who will then be reported.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The selection of learning method is one of the most crucial parts in the learning process. This is as expressed by Kristian (in Fuad: 2009) "the learning method is one of the factors that determines the success of a program". Iqro 'method is the method used in learning Arabic literature. This method was discovered by KH. As'ad Umam (Nashrulloh, 2016). This method is further adopted by Ustadz who is also a literacy tutor in Merpati study group in Jember Regency. Implementation of iqro 'method was based on the characteristics of citizens learning the literacy of Merpati learning group who prefer and easier to learn Arabic letters than Latin letters.
Literacy learning using iqro method in Merpati Study Group was held twice in a week, i.e. every Monday and Saturday nights with duration of approximately two hours in each lesson, starting at seven pm to nine pm. This lesson was implemented for two months.
Learning by iqro' method was not done every day in order to minimizing boredom. In addition, learning citizen can also take advantage of the pause time to learn independently between the time of his spare time. Saturday and Monday nights were chosen based on agreement with the learning citizens. The involvement of the learning citizens in determining the learning schedule was appropriate because the citizens learning literacy in Merpati study group were adult, so they should be involved in determining the learning schedule. Knowles (1980) has pointed out that "adult educator must plan with the learner a sequence of experience that will produce the desired learning (planning function). In the planning function, it was not only planning the materials learned but also planning the time to study the material.
The related materials about reading, writing, and calculating were delivered in turns; starting from reading, writing, and counting. The lesson was done by introducing the Latin letters through the basic Arabic letters / hijaiyah, then composing them into spellings of syllables, word by word, into one short sentence then into one paragraph. Iqro' included reading and writing hijaiyah letters, pronouncing hijaiyah letters which was then written by using latin writing both long and short text. The writing of letters arranged into words had meaning, which then developed again by giving short readings, a short verse that was adapted from the Qur'an and its meaning (studied the meaning of the contents of the short verses). It was done repeatedly until the people learnt really understand. Literacy learning using iqro' method was conducted in 16 meetings. The first meeting was to introduce the reading and writing of hijaiyah letters starting from ا till ي by singing. Implementation of iqro method at this stage was combined with singing method with the aim that citizens learnt easily in memorizing.
The second meeting was to introduce reading and writing alphabet letters starting from A to Z. This step was to combine Arabic letters with Latin alphabet letters; such as ﭐ with alphabet A/a, ﭒ with alphabet B/b and the following letters.
It also happened to other following letters.
The fourth meeting was a repetition of the second and third steps. This was done repeatedly until the learning citizens really understood. In this step, tutor also gave an explanation that in reading and writing hijaiyah / arabic letters starting from right to left, while to start reading and writing alphabet / Latin letters started from left to right.
The fifth meeting was the learning of vowels. In this step, citizens were invited to learn reading and writing with introducing a, i, u, and a short and long of hijaiyah letters started from the letter ا s / d ي then written using alphabet letters.
The sixth meeting was to use the knock technique in learning long and short reading. One knock was for short reading, and two knocks or more was for long reading. For example, if the hijaiyah letter is accompanied by a harokat indicating a long reading, the tutor read the writing by knocking the blackboard.
While the citizens wrote it with Latin script by paying attention to the Arabic writing that was adjusted by the knock of the tutor. If the tutor knocked twice it means that the number of letters was also twice. It was done repeatedly until the people really understood.
The seventh meeting was the introduction and explanation of the different forms of writing in hijaiyah but the same writing and reading on Latin script. For example in the letter ha (ح) and ha (ه), then the tutor only emphasized the difference in pronunciation only.
The eighth meeting was composite literacy learning. Learning citizens were taught to read and to write a composite of several hijaiyah letters started from alif (ا) till ya (ي); so that, they became a single word with the pronunciation of a, i, u along with their short and long reading while singing it and then copy them into alphabet.
Learning letters using iqro’ method at the first to eight meetings can be illustrated in table 1 below; The third meeting was to teach the writing of hijaiyah reading in Latin script. In this step, letter ﭐ was not only written and read by using alphabet A/a but also with the writing and reading alif. Besides, letter ﭒ was not only written and read by using alphabet B/b but also with the writing and reading Ba’. 4232 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 5, Issue 01, January, 2018 No The ninth meeting was the introduction of numbers which was done by introducing Arabic and Latin numbers side by side.
The tutor wrote Arabic and Latin numbers side by side completed by the spellings in alphabetical letters.
Furthermore, tutor guided the learning citizens to read and to write them in notebooks.
The tenth meeting was the memorization of Arabic and Latin numbers. The tutor asked the learning citizens to observe and to memorize the numbers in both numerical and written form by singing them repeatedly. Arabic numbers were not usually used in counting lessons.
Learning of numbers using iqro 'method can be seen in table 2 below;
Tabel 2 Number Set
Latin The eleventh meeting was a repetition of the tenth meeting. At this meeting, learning was also combined with singing method in order to make the learning citizens become more easily in mastering it.
The twelfth meeting was the introduction of simple counting through the pictures. The learning was done by illustrating the numbers connected with pictures of objects understood by the citizens who then were asked to count them and match them with the numbers written beside them.
The illustration of the learning of simple counting can be seen in Figure 1 below; The thirteenth meeting was still related to the learning of simple counting operations with the picture media. The learning citizens were given a counting problem that included addition, subtraction, multiplication and distribution with the picture media.
The picture Illustration can be seen in Figure 2 below;
The fourteenth meeting was the repetition of the twelfth meeting. The difference was in the variety of media used that were not only by using pictures but can also by using the goods around, such as pencils, chalk, books or money. The fifteenth meeting was a counting learning with the subject of addition, multiplication, division, and subtraction by using the latin number only. The Learning was started from units, tens, hundreds, and thousands. At this meeting, the question has been made in sentence form.
The example of problems at this meeting can be seen in Figure 3 below; Qur'an along with its meaning and telling stories of prophets and messengers between the time of learning. The presence consistency of the learning citizens became an important factor in the successful implementation of iqro method in literacy learning because at each meeting, the learners must be ensured to achieve the achievement of the targeted competencies. That decision was also supported by Khusna (2013) who said that the combination of interest and the presence of learners influenced the learning outcomes. The combination with singing method has also been one of the factors influencing the successful application of iqro 'method to literacy learning. The use of singing methods was very appropriate because it could make the learning citizens become easier to learn in mastering new vocabulary. It also was supported by the findings of Prastiya (2010) which showed that, the use of singing method could facilitate learners in memorizing and understanding new vocabulary. The use of picture, stationery, money as the media was also one of the factors that influenced the successful implementation of iqro 'method on literacy learning. Media here served as a function of cognitive and motivational functions because in addition to providing new knowledge and understanding, it could also motivate citizens to learn the topics covered. Saputri, et al (2015 ) defined the cognitive function of the media is a tool that could provide new knowledge and understanding of a thing while the motivational function of media is a tool that could focus and motivate learners on learning materials.
Involving Islamic elements through the study of Qur'an completed with the meanings and telling the stories of prophets and messengers between the time of learning was also one of the factors influencing the successful application of iqro 'method to literacy learning. This step was the right step because according to the Knowles (1980), "adult educator must create conditions that will cause the learners to want to learn. Adult educators must create conditions that can make people learn to learn. Marzuki (2009) also says that "interest is usually a conscious rather than a rather unconscious need. If they feel interest (interest) then they will be more motivated in learning ". Implementation of iqro 'method by making arabic language as an introduction can be the initial condition of the growing interest of learning citizens to learn Latin script.
The implementation of iqro method in Merpati study group was based on the characteristics of the learning citizens who love learning Arabic letters which was done in 16 meetings or within 32 hours where 1 hour of face to face meeting equaled to 60 minutes. introducing and explaining different writing form on hijaiyah but the writing and reading were the same on latin writing, reading and writing composite letters, recognizing number, memorizing Arabic and Latin numbers, consolidating memorization of Arabic and Latin numbers, introducing simple calculation, learning simple counting with picture media, consolidating the calculation learning with picture media, introducing the counting operation using latin numbers, and consolidating the counting operation using latin numbers. Factors supporting the successful implementation of iqro method were were (1) the majority of learning citizens have been familiar with both Arabic and Latin numbers, (2) the consistency of attendance, (3) its application was combined with singing method, (4) its application also used the media of picture, stationary, and money, and (5) incorporating learning the Qur'an along with its meaning and telling stories of prophets and messengers between the time of learning.
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