Detection of Motion and Tracking Based on Consecutive Frame Using Differnce Hybrid Filtering Method
K.Pasalikka Jansi Dr.K.Mahesh
The object is defined by its location and extent in a single frame. In every frame that follows, the task is to determine the object’s location and extent or indicate that the object is not present.. Tracking is usually performed in the context of higher-level applications that require the location and/or shape of the object in every frame. The detection of moving object is important in many tasks, such as video surveillance and moving object tracking. We proposed a novel approach is to detected the moving objects should be presented to higher-level analysis tools in order to identify further events and behaviors of interest typical of observation systems for open spaces. Then the background subtraction will be done by the algorithms to track object. The methods using for background subtraction are: Video surveillance applications, which combine recent scheme for the improvement of the system recital and system convergence, and a novel heuristic for better initializing the constraint for new created forms, and it evades the emergence of overdominating form. Background subtraction function is constructed that gives the likelihood that a given pixel belongs to the allocation of background pixels. For the running average the previous known pixel values were fitted to the model of distribution. It allows the pictures by eliminating the background and analyzes the object exactly. In a further different frame activity has captured to analyze the varying objects in the video then the difference image is converted into gray image and then translated into binary image. Moreover, we discuss the important issues related to kalman filter is used to track the object and morphological operations are done to detect the object perfectly.
In this work, floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS) based low-voltage, low-power (LV/LP) variant of voltage differencing buffered amplifier (VDBA). The linearity of the Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) stage of the proposed active element is observed to increase compared to the conventional CMOS VDBA. This has been demonstrated for several supply voltages. The proposed circuit operates at low supply voltage of ±1.35V with total power consumption of 0.745mW. The application of the proposed circuit is verified through robust resistorless voltage mode universal biquad filters which are observed to implement standard filter functions. The simulations are performed through SPICE in TSMC 0.18µm technology. The work is intended to find applications in low-voltage, low-power battery-operated medical devices and other analog signal processing circuits.
A New Approach to Automatic Generation of All Triangular Mesh For Finite Element Analysis
H.T. Rathoda*, Bharath Rathod K. Sugantha Devic
This paper presents a new mesh generation method for a convex polygonal domain. We first decompose the convex polygon into simple sub regions in the shape of triangles. These simple regions are then triangulated to generate a mesh of 6-node triangular elements. We propose then an automatic 6-node trianglar to 3-node triangular conversion scheme. Each isolated 6-node triangle is split into four triangles according to the usual scheme,that is,by adding three vertices in the middle of the edges and joining them by straight lines. To preserve the mesh conformity a similar procedure is also applied to every triangle of the domain to fully discretize the given convex polygonal domain into all triangles, thus propagating uniform refinement. This simple method generates a high quality mesh whose elements confirm well to the requested shape by refining the problem domain. Examples are presented to illustrate the simplicity and efficiency of the new mesh generation method for standard and arbitrary shaped polygonal domains and cracked polygonal domains. We have appended MATLAB programs which incorporate the mesh generation scheme developed in this paper. These programs provide valuable output on the nodal coordinates ,element connectivity and graphic display of the all triangular mesh for application to finite element analysis.
Implementing Enhanced AODV Using FLAP in Wireless Sensor Networks
Shyna Babbar, Parveen Kakkar
Wireless sensor networks (WSN), sometimes called wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN), are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. AODV is a reactive protocol that has one section per destination. It uses RREQ & RREP to identify routes. It takes a long time to setup routes which reduces efficiency of the protocol. The amount of time required in handoffs can be reduced using FLAP protocol with AODV. Reducing Handoffs will help in increasing throughput and battery life of the network. This paper focuses on the enhanced AODV protocol with FLAP .Comparison of various protocols with enhanced protocol is shown through NS2 simulation by using parameters Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and Delay Time.
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes have limited battery power, so energy consumption is essential issue. Every sensor node can obtain its location information from GPS or other positioning system and send data to sink at any time. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are resource constrained. Energy is one of the most important resources in such networks. Therefore, optimal use of energy is necessary. Energyefficient routing protocol is proposed for WSNs. The protocol is reliable in terms of data delivery at the base station (BS). Mobility in sensor nodes and in the BS is considered. The proposed protocol is hierarchical and cluster based. Each cluster consists of one cluster head (CH) node, two deputy CH nodes, and some ordinary sensor nodes. Considering the reliability aspect of the protocol, it puts best effort to ensure a specified throughput level at the BS. Depending on the topology of the network, the data transmission from the CH node to the BS is carried out either directly or in multihop fashion. Index Terms-Energy efficiency, mobile base station (BS), mobile nodes, reliability, routing protocol, wireless sensor networks.
Breast cancer poses a serious threat in several developed as well as developing countries like Nigeria. The use of machine learning and data mining techniques has revolutionized the whole process of predicting the presence of breast cancer. In this work, we evaluate and investigate three selected classification algorithms using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA for short). WEKA is an open source data mining software mainly used for academic and research purpose. The algorithms tested are C4.5, multi-layer perceptron and Naive Bayes. Experimental results show that C4.5 proves to be the best algorithm with highest accuracy.
The ultimate objective and focus of IT Shops today is to bring down the cost of operations and to run the business efficiently. High cost element to maintain the application and database is measured using the measure called MIPS [millions of instructions per second] and is calculated based on MIPS usage by CPU. In this paper we investigate in detail the causes behind high usage of CPU and the ways in which the MIPS Usage can be curtailed and the cost for it. This paper deals with the universal database DB2 which runs on mainframe MVS operating system. As all the older legacy systems were developed on mainframe using COBOL & DB2 sub-systems, re-engineering the applications is needed to bring the cost down. This paper discusses various sub topics on why and how the MIPS can be brought down with no impact to the application and business. Programs written with poor readability in an unstructured manner and without cost consciousness are the key factors causing performance issues now-a-days. Optimizer, a component which decides the optimal access path to fetch data from database is based on statistical data captured in system tables. By adopting various approaches and disciplines outlined in this paper surely would guide application programmers to script their queries appropriately and as a result, organization’s objectives and goals can be met. In computing, optimization is the process of modifying a system to improve its efficiency where the system can be a single entity or a collection of entities.
The coming century is surely the century of data. A combination of blind faith and serious purpose makes our society invest massively in the collection and processing of data of all kinds, on scales unimaginable until recently. In spite of the fact that graph embedding has been an intense instrument for displaying data natural structures, just utilizing all elements for data structures revelation may bring about noise amplification. This is especially serious for high dimensional data with little examples. To meet this test, a novel effective structure to perform highlight determination for graph embedding, in which a classification of graph implanting routines is given a role as a slightest squares relapse issue. In this structure, some preprocessing techniques for instance selection are used. Classification, Clustering are used for accuracy calculation
Cost Effective Resource Allocation in C-RAN with Mobile Cloud Computing
M. Jame Rishi
To facilitate mobile users service and increase their revenue mobile operators uses Cloud radio access network(C-RAN) and mobile cloud computing(MCC). The aim of this paper is to reduce mobile operator's cost and mobile users task time constraints. Such that we assume the operation happens like the mobile cloud completes the task first and then pass the results back through the C-RAN to users. Considering constraints like user's data rate requirements, maximum transmission power and fronthaul links capacity joint cost-effective resource allocation is proposed between C-RAN and MCC. We solve the optimization problem for resource allocation and admission control of users. Taking the non-linear constraint and solving the problem through big-M method framework. We solve joint cost effective by non-convex optimization with the constraints of task executing time, transmitting power, computation capacity and fronthaul data rates. Using weighted minimum mean square(WMMSE) the non-convex problem is changed to convex problem
Textual documents are created in various forms. Existing work is devoted to topic modeling and the evolution of individual topics, but sequential relations of topics in successive documents created by specific users are ignored. In this paper we introduce Sequential Topic Patterns (STPs) and formulate the problem of mining User-aware Rare Sequential Topic Patterns (URSTPs) in document streams that characterize and detect personalized and abnormal behaviors of users. Such an innovative problem of mining will be solved by using three phases: extraction of probabilistic topics using preprocessing and identify sessions for different users, generating all the STP candidates with (expected) support values for each user by patterngrowth, and selecting URSTPs by making user-aware rarity analysis on derived STPs. Finally our result reflects users’ characteristics.
An Effective Thresholding Technique for Otsu’s Method using Contrast Enhancement
A Sankar Reddy, C Usha Rani, M. Sudhakar
Image segmentation is the fundamental approach of digital image processing. Among all the segmentation methods, Otsu method is one of the most successful methods for image thresholding because of its simple calculation. Otsu is an automatic threshold selection region based segmentation method. This paper works based on the principle of binarization of Otsu's method. In addition, various enhancement schemes are used for enhancing an image which includes gray scale manipulation, filtering and Histogram Equalization (HE). Histogram equalization is one of the well-known image enhancement technique. It became a popular technique for contrast enhancement because this method is simple and effective. In the latter case, preserving the input brightness of the image is required to avoid the generation of non-existing artifacts in the output image. Although these methods preserve the input brightness on the output image with a significant contrast enhancement, they may produce images with do not look as natural as the input ones. The proposed work is divided into three stages. Firstly, Histogram Equalization is applied to the low contrast input image. Secondly, we are obtaining the bimodal image by applying Otsu's binarization, Thirdly, Otsu's thresholding technique is applied to get the binary image. The experimental analysis shows that the results are better than the state of the art methods applied. We have shown the comparison results subjectively as well as objectively. Subjective parameters are visual quality and computation time and objective parameters are Peak signal to-noise ratio (PSNR), Mean squared error (MSE and Average Information Content (AIC).
Reconfigurable Fir Filter Architecture for EEG Application
Swati Bhat, Mrs. Usharani S
Filters play an important role in noise removal. There are many different types of filter architecture that have been proposed. Reconfigurable architectures of FIR filter are used in application like software defined radio (SDR) which support multistand communication and also in medical application. In this designed work Reconfigurable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is designed for Electro Encephalo-Gram (EEG) application. The filter is in transpose form which support pipelining and multiple constant multiplications (MCM). Area and delay is calculated on FPGA using XILINX 14.2 software and filtering of EEG signal using MATLAB 2013a. The design is less complex utilizing less area and delay. The overall delay for block size 8 was 12.17ns and frequency 167.57 MHz
A Review of Traffic Management in WDM Optical Networks: Progress and Challenges
Samriti Rana, Dr. Rajneesh Randhawa
Due to increasing bandwidth demand, network providers are moving towards a crucial milestone in network evolution: the Optical Network. Today, the major technology that is promising to meet this high bandwidth demand of networks is optical networking. The high data rates employed by wavelength division multiplexing optical networks make them most suitable for today’s growing network traffic demands. This paper reviews most of the recent research work on traffic management in WDM optical networks. Various challenges involved with optical networks are also discussed in the paper
Wireless Sensor networks are an growing areas of research. Wireless Sensor Networks are mostly used to monitor targets in the field of interest. One of the most active areas of research in Wireless Sensor Networks is that of coverage. Coverage and Connectivity are two of the most initial issue in the WSN. Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks is usually defined as a measure of how well the sensing field is monitored or sensors are able to observe the physical space. Connectivity can be defined as the ability of the sensor to reach the data sink. This paper focuses on the coverage issues in the Wireless Sensor Network. Initially, three coverage issues are discussed
Towards The Study of Cloud Computing and Its Security
Srisaranyaa.R, Samson Dinakaran.S
In the current trends of computing, cloud computing plays a vital role and it is emerging at the level of maximum. The reason behind this is people started moving their data to cloud with the expectation of hundred percentage availability on their demand, i.e., anytime anywhere computing. Though the cloud services are provided by the third party, security becomes a very big question mark. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of cloud computing and its security, which help the young researchers to get clear idea.
Phishing Detection and Prevention Techniques & Analysis of Various Recent Phishing Attacks
Prof. Gayathri Naidu
Now a day‘s phishing attack has become one of the most serious issues faced by internet users, organizations and service providers. In phishing attack attacker tries to obtain the personal information of the users by using spoofed emails or by using fake websites or both. The internet community is still looking for the complete solution to secure the internet from such attacks. This paper presents an overview about various phishing attacks and various techniques to protect the information from the phishers also shows the analysis of various recent phishing attacks
Distributed Data mining In Wireless Sensor Network Using Fuzzy Naïve Byes
Nitika Malik, Pankaj Kumar
The wireless sensor nodes are getting smaller, but Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are getting larger with the technological developments, currently containing thousands of nodes and possibly millions of nodes in the future. Therefore, effective and trustworthy event detection methods for the WSN require robust and intelligent methods of mining hidden patterns in the sensor data, while supporting various kinds of dynamicity. Due to the fact that events are often functions of more than one attribute, data fusion and use of more features can help increasing event detection rate and reducing false alarm rate. In addition, sensor fusion can lead to more accurate and robust event detection by eliminating outliers and erroneous readings of individual sensor nodes and combining individual readings. There is a need for intelligent and energy efficient monitoring methods, made possible by novel data mining and classification methods, and the work reported in this paper involves such a novel energy efficient data mining scheme for forest cover type classification based on random forests and random trees & dual event detection decisions. The experimental validation of the proposed data mining scheme on a publicly available UCI machine learning dataset, shows that the proposed random forest and random tree based approach perform significantly better than the conventional statistical classifiers, such as Naïve Bayes, discriminant classifiers, and can lead towards energy efficient, intelligent monitoring and characterization of large physical environments instrumented using Wireless sensor networks.
Analysis of Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded Micro Grid Using an Improved Droop Control Strategy
Shaik Kothwal Babjee M Vijay Kumar
: In this paper, a reactive power sharing strategy that employs communication and the virtual impedance concept is proposed to enhance the accuracy of reactive power sharing in an islanded microgrid. Communication is utilized to facilitate the tuning of adaptive virtual impedances in order to compensate for the mismatch in voltage drops across feeders. Once the virtual impedances are tuned for a given load operating point, the strategy will result in accurate reactive power sharing even if communication is disrupted. If the load changes while communication is unavailable, the sharing accuracy is reduced, but the proposed strategy will still outperform the conventional droop control method. In addition, the reactive power sharing accuracy based on the proposed strategy is immune to the time delay in the communication channel. The sensitivity of the tuned controller parameters to changes in the system operating point is also explored. The control strategy is straight forward to implement and does not require knowledge of the feeder impedances. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy are validated using simulation results for a 2-kva micro-grid
Analysis of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Distributed MPPT for Grid-Connected PV Applications
Madithati Mallikarjuna Reddy V.Pratapa Rao
A modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected PV applications has been presented in this paper. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected PV applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this problem, a control scheme with modulation compensation is also proposed. The simulated three-phase seven-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing nine Hbridge modules (three modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W PV panel. Simulation results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Chinnareddigari Nandeesh Reddy A. Mahesh Kumar Reddy2
Enhancement Control Concept of Grid Power Transmission Limits During Day And Night Using PV-Solar Farm as STATCOM
Chinnareddigari Nandeesh Reddy A. Mahesh Kumar Reddy2
This project presents a novel concept of utilizing a photovoltaic (PV) solar farm inverter as STATCOM, called PV-STATCOM, for improving stable power transfer limits of the interconnected transmission system. The entire inverter rating of the PV solar farm, which remains dormant during night time, is utilized with voltage and damping controls to enhance stable power transmission limits. During daytime, the inverter capacity left after real power production is used to accomplish the aforementioned objective. Transient stability studies are conducted on a realistic single machine infinite bus power system having a midpoint located PV-STATCOM using MATLAB simulation software. The PV-STATCOM improves the stable transmission limits substantially in the night and in the day even while generating large amounts of real power. Power transfer increases are also demonstrated in the same power system for 1) two solar farms operating as PV-STATCOMs and 2) a solar farm as PV-STATCOM and an inverter-based wind farm with Similar STATCOM controls. This novel utilization of a PV solar farm asset can thus improve power transmission limits which would have otherwise required expensive additional equipment, such as series/shunt capacitors or separate flexible AC transmission System controllers.
Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Electric Springs and STATCOM for Compensating Voltage Fluctuations
Gopisetty Venkatesh D.C. Dastagiri
The concept of electric spring (ES) has been proposed recently as an effective means of distributed voltage control. The idea is to regulate the voltage across the critical (C) loads while allowing the noncritical (NC) impedance-type loads (e.g., water heaters) to vary their power consumption and thus contribute to demandside response. In this paper, a comparison is made between distributed voltage control using ES against the traditional single point control with STATic Compensator (STATCOM). For a given range of supply voltage variation, the total reactive capacity required for each option to produce the desired voltage regulation at the point of connection is compared. A simple case study with a single ES and STATCOM is presented first to show that the ES and STATCOM require comparable reactive power to achieve similar voltage regulation. Comparison between a STATCOM and ES is further substantiated through similar case studies on the IEEE 13-bus test feeder system and also on a part of the distribution network in Sha Lo Wan Bay, Hong Kong. In both cases, it turns out that a group of ESs achieves better total voltage regulation than STATCOM with less overall reactive power capacity. Dependence of the ES capability on the proportion of critical and NC load is also shown
Estimation of Reliable Routing and Maintenance For Wireless Sensor Network.
Sripushpa c Dr. Prabhavathi S
Dependable information transmissions are trying in modern remote sensor systems as channel conditions change after some period. Fast variation in channel condition requires precise estimation of the steering way execution and convenient refresh of the directing data. Nonetheless, this is not very much satisfied in present directing methodologies. Tending to this issue, this paper presents joined worldwide and neighborhood refresh forms for effective course refresh and upkeep and consolidates them with a various leveled proactive directing system. While the worldwide procedure refreshes the steering way with a moderately long stretch, the neighborhood procedure with a small period verify potential directing way issues. Hypothetical demonstrate is created to depict the procedures. Through reproductions, the introduced approach is appeared to decrease end to end postpone for expansive systems while enhancing Packet Reception Ratio (PRR) in correlation with various leveled and proactive directing conventions Route Optimization Technique (ROT), Compared with receptive steering conventions AOMDV and AODV, it gives comparative PRR while diminishing end-to-end defer more.